Mathematical Aptitude - Profit and Loss

11. The cost price of 100 pencils is equal to the selling price of 60 pencils. The gain percentage or loss percentage is

  • Option : B
  • Explanation : Let CP = SP = Rs 100.
    CP of 100 pencils = Rs 100
    CP of 1 pencil = 100/100 = Rs 1
    SP of 60 pencils = Rs 100
    SP of 1 pencil = `100/60 = Rs 5/3
    Profit = 5/3 – 1 = 2/3
    Profit percentage = 2/3/1 × 100 = 66 2/3%
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12. Arvind deals in carpets. He allows 4% discount on the marked price. What price must be marked on a carpet that cost Rs 480 so as to make a profit of 10%?

  • Option : B
  • Explanation : SP = 480 + 10% of 480 = Rs 528
    Let Marked price = M
    Now 96% of M = 528, So M = Rs 550
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13. A readymade producer manufactures both men’s and women’s garments. The average profit is 5% of the total sales. The profit on men’s garments is on an average of 9% of the sales. The women’s garments are 60% of the total output. The average profit percentage on women garments is

  • Option : C
  • Explanation : The ratio of production between women and men is 60:40.
    The profit on men’s garments = 9% of Rs 40 = Rs 3.6
    To make profit of 5%, contribution of women’s garments = 5 – 3.6 = Rs 1.4
    Profit percentage on women = 1.4/60 × 100 = 2.33%
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15. The cost of an article reduces by 20%. This enables a person to buy 2 kg more articles for Rs 300. Find the reduced and the original price per kg of rice.

  • Option : A
  • Explanation : 20% reduction on Rs 600 means benefit of RS 120 to a customer. That enables customer to buy 2 kg extra article.
    Thus reduced selling price of 2 Kg = Rs 120 and of one Kg = 120/2 = Rs 60
    If a value reduces by 20%, it means it should be increased by 25% to reach at original value again.
    Thus original price = 60 + 25% of 60 = Rs 75
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