Logical Reasoning - Statement and Conclusion

11. Statements
All books are stones.
All stones are papers.
Conclusions
I. Some papers are books.
II. Some papers are stones.

  • Option : C
  • Explanation : The condition of three terms is satisfied. No alignment is required.
    A + A = A, conclusion is ‘All books are papers’. The immediate inference of the conclusion is ‘Some papers are books’. So conclusion I follows.
    The immediate inference of second statement is ‘some papers are stones’; that is also conclusion 2. So, option (c) is the answer.
    Venn diagram solution:
    logical reasoning
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12. Statements
Only graduates are eligible for this post.
Most rickshaw-pullers are graduates.
Conclusions
I. Some rickshaw-pullers are eligible for this post.
II. All those eligible for this post are graduates.

  • Option : C
  • Explanation : This is a comprehensive question, covering all major aspects of syllogism. Please look at the solution carefully.
    We need to bring the statements to their logical form before checking them for alignment.
    All those eligible for the post are graduates. Some rickshaw pullers are graduates.
    There are three terms—eligible, graduates, and rickshaw pullers. ‘Graduates’ is the common term.
    The statements are not in the form: A to B and A to B. According to IEA, second statement should be given priority for conversion:
    ‘Some graduates are rickshaw pullers’.
    Now the statements are to be brought to A to B and B to C form.
    ‘All those eligible for the post are graduates’ (A type)
    ‘Some graduates are rickshaw pullers’ (I type)
    A + I = No conclusion.
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13. Statements
All grapes are oranges.
Some apples are not oranges.
Conclusions
I. All apples are grapes.
II. Some apples are grapes.

  • Option : D
  • Explanation : There are three terms—grapes, oranges, and apples.
    A + O = No conclusion.
    We do not get any conclusion through immediate inference (conversion) also. So, option (d) is the answer.
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14. Statements
All students are ambitious.
All ambitious persons are hardworking.
Conclusions
I. All students are hardworking.
II. All hardly working people are not ambitious.

  • Option : A
  • Explanation : A + A = A, so conclusion I follows.
    In conclusion II, the term ‘hardly working’ is not mentioned in the statements. So it does not need any consideration.
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