Explanation : The condition of three terms is satisfied. No alignment is required.
A + A = A, conclusion is ‘All books are papers’. The
immediate inference of the conclusion is ‘Some papers
are books’. So conclusion I follows.
The immediate inference of second statement is ‘some
papers are stones’; that is also conclusion 2. So, option
(c) is the answer. Venn diagram solution:
Explanation : This is a comprehensive question, covering all
major aspects of syllogism. Please look at the solution
We need to bring the statements to their logical form
before checking them for alignment.
All those eligible for the post are graduates.
Some rickshaw pullers are graduates.
There are three terms—eligible, graduates, and rickshaw pullers. ‘Graduates’ is the common term.
The statements are not in the form: A to B and A to B.
According to IEA, second statement should be given
priority for conversion:
‘Some graduates are rickshaw pullers’.
Now the statements are to be brought to A to B and B
to C form.
‘All those eligible for the post are graduates’ (A type)
‘Some graduates are rickshaw pullers’ (I type)
A + I = No conclusion.