- Option : A
- Explanation :

This commits a deductive fallacy, formal fallacy, logical fallacy or non sequitur (Latin for "it does not follow"). It is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure -- fallacy wherein the conclusion does not follow from the propositions.

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22. The smallest integer greater than 1 which is simultaneously a square and a cube of certain

- Option : D
- Explanation :

Let the number 'k' is cube of number x and square of number (x + y).

Then, k = x^{3}... (i)

k = (x + y)^{2}... (ii)

Here, 1 ≤ (x,y) < k/2

From (i) and (ii),

x^{3}= (x + y)^{2}

x^{3}= x^{2}+ y^{2}+ 2xy

x^{3}- x^{2}= y^{2}+ 2xy

x^{2}(x-1) = y(y + 2x)

For x = 2, 2^{2}(2 - 1) = y(y + 4)

This is not valid for any integer value of y.

For x = 3, 3^{2}(3 - 1) = y(y+ 6)

18 = y(y+ 6)

This is not valid for any integer value of y.

For x = 4, 4^{2}(4 - 1) = y(y + 8)

48 = y(y + 8)

48 = 4(4 + 8) = 48

Thus x = 4,and y = 4

Hence, Number k = (x)^{3}= (4)^{3}= 64.

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24. Swapping of encoder- decoder roles in communication happens due to

- Option : C
- Explanation :

This can be understood in terms of teaching-learning in an educational institution.

In the classroom the teacher is the encoder of messages and the student, the decoder. After the teaching, the encoder/teacher takes the feedback in the form of students' response-sheets to an assessment exercise/ test. When the encoder takes up the activity of analysing the feedback, i.e., checking! evaluating the responses, the roles of encoder-decoder stand swapped. Here, the students have encoded messages that the teacher has to decode.

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- Option : D
- Explanation :

Acknowledging the help, support and guidance availed in course of completing a research study is not just formality, nor a required formal process nor a superfluous act. It is part of ethicality involved in the research process. Research ethics are the moral principles that a researcher must follow in every way in every aspect of the research undertaken. Following ethical principles is indeed crucial for maintaining research integrity.

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