Explanation : 'Middle term should be distributed in at least one premise' is the only correct statement among those given.
Categorical syllogisms have exactly three
categorical propositions, two of which are
premises; and the third is the conclusion.
There are exactly three terms, each
appearing only twice.
Four rules apply to all valid categorical
Rule 1: The middle term must be distributed
in at least one premise.
Rule 2: Any term that is distributed in
the conclusion must be distributed in the
Rule 3: The number of negative premises
must be equal to the number of negative
Rule 4: No particular conclusion can be
drawn from exclusively universal premises.
Arguments that pass each of these tests are
valid. Those that fail to satisfy even one of
the rules are invalid
Explanation : Technology enabled communication is
most suited for uniform imparting of
educative interactions. All such, it travels
uniformly from the source and reaches
every member of the audience regardless
of their individual differences.
Top down and linear communication style
is suitable in organisations with multiple
levels in hierarchy. Classroom teaching
has ouly two levels-the teacher and the
taught. Hierarchy in terms of performance
levels is non-inclusive and undesirable in a
Individual centric communication may
challenge the teacher to ensure that
every student in the class has received
the information imparted, particularly
when the class size is large. Individual
differences among students would mean
that some lag behind and fail to receive the
likewise, communication sel-projected by
the teacher might fail to reach some students
particularly when the class is large.
Explanation : Stratified random sampling works best
in case of a heterogeneous population.
It is a method of sampling that involves
the division of a population into smaller
sub-groups known as strata, on the
basis of the members' shared attributes
or characteristics such as income or
Simple random sampling is suitable to
a homogenous population. It involves
separate random selection of each
Cluster sampling is
simple random sample is taken from each
of the different clusters in the population. Multiple clusters of people are created from a population where they are indicative of
homogeneous characteristics and have an
equal chance of being a part of the sample.
Systematic random sampling does not
involve separate random selection of each
household. It is often used to select large
samples from a long list of households and
therefore, proceeds in a systematic manner,
selecting every nth member of population
to be included in the study.
Explanation : The assertion, 'Classroom communication
is pre-decided by social and institutional
demands', is true. Classroom transaction
at any class level is planned in accordance
with the curriculum framework which
lays down the guidelines for educational
institutions about what to teach and how,
in accordance with the Education Policy
of the nation. The education policy is aims
at educating its learner-citizens in keeping
with the social demands of the nation.
Institutions vary in the quality and level
of resources, they make available for the
teaching-learning process; so, institutional
demands also influence and pre-decide
The reason for this is that educative actions
must be positively oriented and must also
aim at positive outcomes so that learners
acquire knowledge that is significant to
fu1fil social demands. Hence, (R) is the
correct reason for (A).
Explanation : Total cost of 3 items at the rate of ₹1500 each
= 3 x 1500 = ₹4500
Total cost of 2 items at the rate of ₹1800 each
= 2 x 1800 = ₹3600
Total cost of 5 items = 4500 + 3600 = ₹8100
Discount = 10%
Net cost = 8100 x (100-10)/100 = ₹7290
Average cost of the item = 7290/5 = ₹1458