Explanation : Whether it is valid or invalid is the
characteristic feature of all arguments
which is tested by determining its truth
or falsity on the basis of the Fundamental
Principle of Argumentation. The principle
An argument is INVALID if and only if
it is logically possible for the conclusion
to be false even though every premise is
assumed to be true.
Testing the validity of an argument is a
(i) Each premise as well as the
conclusion is symbolized.
(ii) A truth table with a column for
each premise and a column for the
conclusion is prepared.
(iii) If the truth table has a row where the
conclusion column is FALSE while
every row in the premise column
is TRUE, then the argument is
INVALID. Otherwise, the argument
Explanation : Identifying variables and hypothesizing is
a creative activity. The area of study may
have extraneous variables likely to lead the
proposed study astray; so, the researcher
has to use their imagination to identify the
pertinent variables that could create the
hypothesis in the best expression possible; and accordingly, give form and structure to
the study they propose to undertake.
The other steps mentioned do not need
• Identifying the research problem and
defining it is a rational theoretical
step taken by the researcher on the
basis of personal interest, choice and
capability for research in the specific
• Figuring out the related studies
and the techniques used by other
researchers needs focus and diligence
but not creativity.
• Data analysis and presentation of
results is a strictly statistical process
requiring no creativity.
Explanation : Participant observation is a qualitative
research method in which the researcher
not only observes the research participants, but also actively engages in the activities of
the research participants.
The college teacher in this case will be able
to effectively depict the reality situations
relating to home conditions of students and
hostels provided for only by being with
them, actively engaging with them in their
activities, and simultaneously observing
Experimental research strictly adheres to
a scientific research design. It investigates
a hypothesis through experiments in a
controlled environment where a variable
can be manipulated by the researcher
against variables that can be measured,
calculated and compared
Descriptive research describes a situation,
subject, behavior, or phenomenon.
Ethnographic research is the scientific
description of a particular human society,
its peoples and cultures, with their
customs, practices and diversities through
participatory, analytical and comparative
Explanation : Aptitude test is a maximum performance test.
Tests are of two major categories:
I. Maximum Performance Tests
which are designed to test the limits
of the persons' knowledge and
abilities. These are of various kinds.
(a) Achievment & Aptitude Tests
• Achievement Tests assess knowledge
from previous instruction.
• Aptitude Tests measure cognitive
ability and skills.
(b) Speed & Power Tests
• Speed Tests measure the rate of
performing a task
Power tests measure the difficulty in
(c) Objective & Subjective Tests
• Objective tests like multiple choice
test require exact answers and no subjective judgment. -Subjective
tests require subjective judgment and
II. Typical Response Tests measure things
like personality, behavior, attitudes or
interests. These are of two main kinds.
Objective & Projective Personality Tests
• Objective Personality test measures
Personality or interest inventory.
• Projective Personality test ambiguous material Roy-Shock Ink
Explanation : Area of the square = 5 x 5 = 25 cm2
When length is increases by 1 %.
Then, length of the square = 5 + (5x1)/100 = 5.05cm
Area of new square = (5.05) x (5.05) = 25.5025 cm2
Increase in area = 25.5025 - 25 = 0.5025
Percentage increase in area = (0.5025/25) x 100 = 2%