Explanation : Theory of social constructivism is the idea
that human development is socially situated
and knowledge is constructed through
interaction with others. Hence, this theory
applies to classroom communication, too.
Audience marginalization theory conveys
the discriminatory paucity of information
and communication reaching a person,
group, or concept considered as insignificant
Ritualistic theory asserts that focused
interaction or ritual, is at the heart of all
social dynamics; as rituals generate group
emotions that are linked to symbols, forming
the basis for beliefs, thinking, morality, and
Theory of hegemony is the idea that
the ruling class can manipulate the value system
and mores of a society, so that their view
becomes the general view.
Explanation : The Constructivist approach refers to the
learner actively constructing or discovering
their own knowledge and reality being
determined by the experiences of the
learner. The learner engages the self into
the learning activity, explores the truth, is
able to explain by understanding and then
evaluate the learning that has happened,
and finally extends the knowledge gained
to further learning goals.
So, the sequence of teaching-learning
activist in this approach is: Engage, explore,
explain, evaluate, extend.
Explanation : Like any hypothesis, a substantive hypothesis
is ao assumption about the relation between
two or more variables. It is called substantive
for the purpose of distinguishing it from the
statistical hypothesis (Null, Alternative) and
also because it is not operationalized. An
operationalized hypothesis phrased clearly
to show how the variables are manipulated
or measured or how the main concepts were
put into effect.
In the eventuality of rejection of the Null
Hypothesis after quantitative data analysis,
the substantive research hypothesis should
Explanation : Objective and short answer type tests and
see k only factual answer to be stated in
limited number of words.
Projective tests are a type of personality
test in which the individual must respond
to ambiguous scenes, words or images or
in some cases even draw. Unlike objective
tests, the answers to projective tests can
be very varied and there are no correct or
Essay type tests require the skill to create
descriptive answers by composing good,
meaningful and grammatically correct
sentences in a logical and impressive style.