Explanation : Total maximum marks
= 200+ 100+200 + 200 + 100= 800
Overall marks percentage = 78%
Overall marks = 800 x (78/100) = 624
Total marks obtained = 155 + 80 + 165 + 140 + x = 540 + x
Now, 540 + x = 624
x = 624-540 = 84
Explanation : Intervention based action research is a
specific type of action research that adopts
a critical approach towards processes/
practices and aims for improvements. It
carries out the stages of planning, action,
observation and critical analysis or
reflection (based on collected data) on how
successful or unsuccessful the process of
research was and accordingly repeats the
cycle with improved plan and action in
order to introduce improvements in relevant
practices. This type of research is facilitated
by participation and collaboration of number
of individuals with a common purpose. The
recommended sequence is shown below.
Explanation : Social competence relates to one's ability to
communicate and interact with the people
in the teaching-learning environment which
directly influences learning. Several factors
determine one's social competence. One's
socio-economic status or the caste of birth/
income class/religious community has a
telling effect on one's level of confidence!
ease to communicate and act, quality of
social circle, access to opportunities and
affordability of resources. All this is crucial
to one's emotional well being and also
determines the level of motivation one has
to achieve one's goals.
Explanation : Inference occupies a central place in the
Hindu school of logic (Nyaya). This school
worked out a syllogism in the form of an
argument that goes through five stages:
(1) the proposition (pratijna, literally
(2) the ground (hetu),
(3) the illustration (udaharana),
(4) the application
(5) the conclusion
A syllogism is vitiated by a
fallacious ground or hetvabhasa ("the mere
appearance of a ground").
Upamana (analogy) is one of the six main
sources of knowledge in astiks system of
Explanation : Interpreting or analysing the collected data is essential to make inferences and arrive at conclusions. However, data should be
in comprehensible form to be useful for the purpose. Qualitative data is generally descriptive and needs to be coded for ease of
analysis. Qualitative data collected through technical media such as audio and/or video
recording first needs to be transcribed (put thoughts, speech, or data into written or printed form), only then can it be coded.
Data transcription refers to the process by which certain qualitative data is interpreted or translated into words that can then be categorised, coded and studied.
Structural equation modeling is a multivariate statistical analysis technique that is used to analyze the structural
relationship between measured variables and latent constructs.
Sequential analysis or sequential hypothesis testing is statistical analysis where the sample size is not fixed in advance. Instead data are evaluated as they are collected, and further sampling is stopped in accordance with a pre-defined stopping rule as soon as significant results are observed.
Sampling is the process of selecting
units (e.g., people, organizations) from a
population of interest so that by studying the
sample the researcher may fairly generalize
the findings to the population from which
they were chosen.