Explanation : Verbal and non-verbal (including body
language) communication skills (option B)
are the most effective determinant of the
success of educational communication;
and good communication skills make the
desired impact irrespective of other factors
that are at play. So, estimating time for
audience impact ( option C) is unnecessary.
Understanding negative characteristics of
the audience (option A) is part of analyzing
audience needs (option D).
Explanation : Conversion refers to swapping the subject with the predicate in a categorical proposition. The following chart gives the rules of conversion for the 4 types of categorical propositions:
(A) All S are P.
All P are S. Some P are S*·.
No by limitation,
(E) No S is P.
No P is S.
(I) Some S are P.
Some P are S.
(0) Some S are not P
Some P are not S
(*In traditional logic, the A proposition
has a converse by limitation which is the
subaltern of the invalid A-converse; i.e., the
corresponding I proposition. The converse
by limitation is implied by the original but
is not (usually) equivalent to it.
Explanation : Indian school of logic or nyaya is concerned
with the form and content of reasoning and
argument as recorded in the early texts of
Pratyaksha (perception) and uparnana
(analogy) are two of the six main sources
of knowledge according to the Orthodox
or Astika system of Indian philosophy. The
other four are Anumana (Inference), Shabds
(Verbal testimony), Arthapatti (Implication)
and Anupalabddhi (Non-apprehension).
Explanation : Pedagogy and social interaction are indeed
two major result-oriented activities of
a teacher. Pedagogy, or the method and
practice of teaching gets results. If the
teacher takes into account the various
factors involved such as the availability
of resources, leamer's characteristics, individual differences, etc.; and plans
the instruction accordingly with the most
suitable methods, aids, and resources
possible to ensure equality of opportunity
to every learner, teaching is effective.
Teaching is also effective when the teacher
interacts and communicates well not only
with the learners but also the other members
of the teaching staff, school management!
administration and parents. Hence, (A) is true.
Communication is the vehicle that carries
pedagogy and social interaction forward.
So, it plays not a limited role, but a big role
in both these activities. Hence, (R) is false.
Explanation : The argument for Mr X is aimed at evoking pity.
Argumentum ad misericordiam is the fallacy
of an appeal to invoke pity, commonly
referred to as a sob story, in which one
tries to persuade someone to agree to an
argument or idea by evoking the feelings
of pity or guilt from them or making them
feel sorry for you. This fallacy can make
the other person seem cruel or insensitive if
they do not comply. It is also called "Galileo
argument" as it refers to the scientist's
pitiful trials and house arrest by the Roman
Catholic Inquisition (tribunal for heresy) as
a result of his heliocentric views.
Fallacy of Accident is the fallacy of
applying a general rule to a particular case
whose special circumstances render the rule
Fallacy of composition occurs when one
infers, that if something is true of some part
of a whole, it must be true of the whole.
Fallacy of division occurs when one reasons,
that something that is true of a whole must
also be true of all or some of its parts.