Explanation : MHRD under its National Mission on
Education through Information and
Communication Technology has initiated
the National Digital Library (NDL) project to develop a framework of virtual repository
of learning resources with a single-window
search facility. It is being developed at IIT
Kharagpur. NDL has been designed to benefit
all kinds of users like students (of all levels ),
teachers, researchers, librarians, library users,
professionals, differently abled users and all
other lifelong learners. Educational materials
are available for users ranging from primary
to post-graduate levels are available on this
"National Academic Depository (NAD)"
is a National System set-up by Ministry of
Development and University Grants
Commission to facilitate Academic
Institutions to Digitally, Securely and
Quickly issue Online Academic Awards to
the Students directly in their online NAD
Explanation : Anumana or inference in the Indian school
of logic or Nyaya philosophy prescribes
five stages of argument : (I) the proposition
(pratijna); (2) the ground or reason (hetu);
(3) the illustration/example (udaharana);
(4) the application (upanaya); and, (5) the
conclusion (nigamana). This can be impaired
by hetvabhasa or fallacy (unsound! invalid!
Explanation : Noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. L90 describes the level which exceeded for 90% of the
time that is minimum value. Whereas LO I describes the level which exceeded for only 1% of the time, that is the maximum level.
So arrangement becomes L90, L50, L10, LO1.