Explanation : In Viruddha hetvabhasa or contradictory
fallacious reason, the middle term abides in
the minor term as well as in its opposite. It is a
reason uniformly concomitant with a contrary
inference as well, which means, it proves
the contrary of what it is intended to prove.
e.g. In "Air is heavy because it is empty",
the middle term 'empty' actually disproves
the heaviness of air. Similarly, in 'Sound is
element, because it is caused', the middle
term, 'caused' actually disproves that sound
is element because element is a naturally
occurring thing rather than 'caused'.
Explanation : Savyabhicara literally means 'irregular middle' .
According to the Nyaya system of religious
philosophy, savyabhicara hetvabhasa occurs
when a syllogism has an irregular middle
term, which makes the inference incorrect, as
• All cars are trucks.
• Buses are cars.
• Hence, buses are trucks.
Since the middle term 'cars' is not uniformly
related to the major term 'trucks', the
conclusion is inferred to be incorrect.
Explanation : Information overload leads to delayed
comprehension in the learner which in
turn, leads to delayed feedback. When
grasp / comprehension of the topic taught
is slow, semantic (of meaning) precision or
effective impression are not possible; and
participation, too, is low and hesitant.
Explanation : Teaching can be organized at three levels:
memory, understanding, reflective.
Options (a) and (d) indicate the memory
level, option (b) understanding level and
option (c) reflective level. At memory level,
rote learning or longer recall and retention
of facts is done with least thinking involved.