Explanation : Zone of proxirmal development, now called
the zone of potential development (ZPD)
is a term that Vygotsky used to explain
the range of development in learners. He
postulated that every individual has two
levels of development: a lower level that
is attainable under normal circumstances
and an upper level attainable under the
influence of an adult or capable peer;
the difference between these two levels
being the ZPD. This postulation manifests
Vygotsky's belief in the importance of
social influences, especially instruction, on
children's cognitive development.
Explanation : Linear model of communication is a one-
way communication process which does
not include feedback, or the feedback is
quite delayed. Since there is no feedback,
the level of cognition is unperceivable
and the only result expected is semantic
accuracy from the encoder/teacher.
Psychological disruption and high level of
obstruction are not applicable as it is one-
way communication; removal of physical
noise cannot be ensured as it is teacher-
centric and learners are not involved.
Explanation : Daughter of maternal grandmother of A
means A's mother is B.
Here, As gender of A is not clear, so we can
not find the exact relation.
Here A can be son/daughter of B.
But from given options, option (b) is
Explanation : When an argument's premises assume
the truth of the conclusion, instead of
supporting it , a fallacy of begging the
Circular argument is a logical fallacy in
which the reasoning begins with what
has to be ended with. Ignoratio elenchi is
a logical fallacy of apparently refuting
an opponent while actually disproving
something not asserted. Petitio Principii is
a fallacy in which a conclusion is taken for
granted in the premises.