Explanation : An ex post facto research design is a
method in which groups with qualities
that already exist are compared on some
dependent variable. It is considered quasi-
experimental because the subjects are not
randomly assigned - they are grouped
based on a particular characteristic or
trait. It is empirical as it is verifiable by
observation/experience rather than theory.
It is inductive as it collects data, analyzes
patterns in the data, and then theorizes from
the data. This is evident from its very name,
which means 'after the fact'.
Explanation : Effective oral communication requires self-
confidence, consistent practice, knowing
Long pauses cause boredom and impatience
to creep in; aggressive questioning or
business-like approach distances the
audience; so an informal approach directed
at building a connect with the audience is
what helps oral communication.
Explanation : Learners are intrinsically motivated unless
any de-motivating factor comes into play.
Intrinsic motivation in the learners can
be promoted when they attain short term
learning outcomes and feel enthused to
go for more. This purpose is best served
by formative evaluation which involves
in-process assessment of learners and
helps them to trace their weaknesses and
work on those to better their performance.
Summative assessment is final , end-of-
class assessment which leaves no scope
for improvement; computer-test method
gives no chance to correct a mistake,
norm-referenced test gives a percentile
and compare students' progress to others in
their peer group, which lowers motivation.
Explanation : Outcome-Based Education (OBE) is a
student-centric teaching and learning
methodology in which the course delivery,
assessment are planned to achieve stated
objectives and outcomes. It focuses on
measuring student performance, i.e.
outcomes at different levels. The sequence
of outcome based curriculum design at
college level teaching programmes is
definition of desired learning outcomes,
designing content in line with those,
carrying out the process of teaching-
learning, conducting the assessment and