UGC NET Paper 1 December (Pack of 7) - UGC NET PAPER 1 3rd December 2019 Evening Shift

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Read the following passage carefully and answer the question that follows:
Under the labour theory of value. the value or price of a commodity depends exclusively on the amount of labour going into the production of the commodity. This implies that either labour is the only factor of production or labour is used in the same fixed proportion in the production of all commodities and that labour is homogeneous, i.e. of only one type. Since neither of these assumptions is true, we cannot base the explanation of the comparative advantage on the labour theory of values specifically. Labour is not the only factor of production, nor is it used in the same fixed proportion in the production of all commodities. For example, much more capital equipment per worker is required to produce some products, such as steel, than to produce other products such as textile. In addition. there is usually some possibility of substitution between labour, capital and other factors in the production of most commodities. Furthermore, labour is obviously homogeneous but varies greatly in training, productivity and wages. At the very least. we should allow for different productivities of labour. Indeed, this is how the Ricardian theory of comparative advantage has been tested empirically. In any event, the theory of comparative advantage need not be based on the labour theory of value but can be explained on the basis of the opportunity cost theory which is acceptable. To be noted is that Ricardo himself did not believe in the labour theory of value and used it only as a simple way to explain the law of comparative advantage. The law of comparative advantage is sometimes referred to as the law of comparative cost.

46. In the Labour Theory of Value, when it comes to production of commodities, engagement of labour is

  • Option : B
  • Explanation : Refer to the sentences. 'Under the labour theory of value ... This implies that ... or labour is used in the same fixed proportion in the production of all commodities ...•
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Read the following passage carefully and answer the question that follows:
Under the labour theory of value. the value or price of a commodity depends exclusively on the amount of labour going into the production of the commodity. This implies that either labour is the only factor of production or labour is used in the same fixed proportion in the production of all commodities and that labour is homogeneous, i.e. of only one type. Since neither of these assumptions is true, we cannot base the explanation of the comparative advantage on the labour theory of values specifically. Labour is not the only factor of production, nor is it used in the same fixed proportion in the production of all commodities. For example, much more capital equipment per worker is required to produce some products, such as steel, than to produce other products such as textile. In addition. there is usually some possibility of substitution between labour, capital and other factors in the production of most commodities. Furthermore, labour is obviously homogeneous but varies greatly in training, productivity and wages. At the very least. we should allow for different productivities of labour. Indeed, this is how the Ricardian theory of comparative advantage has been tested empirically. In any event, the theory of comparative advantage need not be based on the labour theory of value but can be explained on the basis of the opportunity cost theory which is acceptable. To be noted is that Ricardo himself did not believe in the labour theory of value and used it only as a simple way to explain the law of comparative advantage. The law of comparative advantage is sometimes referred to as the law of comparative cost.

47. According to the author of the passage
(A) labour is the basis of commodity pricing
(B) labour can be substituted with capital
(C) less capital equipment per worker is required for products like textile
(D) opportunity cost can help explain comparative advantage
(E) Ricardo used the labour theory of value only to explain comparative cost
(F) Ricardo was not sure of his own theory
Choose the correct option :

  • Option : D
  • Explanation : Option (c) is drawn from the line. 'For example. much more capital equipment per worker is requited to produce some products such as steel. than to produce other products such as textile.' Option (d) is drawn on the sentence.' In any event. the theory of comparative advantage need not be based on the labour theory of value but can be explained on the basis of the opportunity cost theory which is acceptable.' Option (e) is drawn upon the sentences. ' ... Ricardo himself did not believe in the labour theory of value and used it only as a simple way to explain the law of comparative advantage. The law of comparative advantage is sometimes referred to as the law of comparative cost.'
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Read the following passage carefully and answer the question that follows:
Under the labour theory of value. the value or price of a commodity depends exclusively on the amount of labour going into the production of the commodity. This implies that either labour is the only factor of production or labour is used in the same fixed proportion in the production of all commodities and that labour is homogeneous, i.e. of only one type. Since neither of these assumptions is true, we cannot base the explanation of the comparative advantage on the labour theory of values specifically. Labour is not the only factor of production, nor is it used in the same fixed proportion in the production of all commodities. For example, much more capital equipment per worker is required to produce some products, such as steel, than to produce other products such as textile. In addition. there is usually some possibility of substitution between labour, capital and other factors in the production of most commodities. Furthermore, labour is obviously homogeneous but varies greatly in training, productivity and wages. At the very least. we should allow for different productivities of labour. Indeed, this is how the Ricardian theory of comparative advantage has been tested empirically. In any event, the theory of comparative advantage need not be based on the labour theory of value but can be explained on the basis of the opportunity cost theory which is acceptable. To be noted is that Ricardo himself did not believe in the labour theory of value and used it only as a simple way to explain the law of comparative advantage. The law of comparative advantage is sometimes referred to as the law of comparative cost.

48. The Ricardian Theory is examined on the basis of

  • Option : C
  • Explanation : Refer to the sentence. ' ... we should allow for different productivities of labour. Indeed, this is how the Ricardian theory of comparative advantage has been tested empirically .'
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Read the following passage carefully and answer the question that follows:
Under the labour theory of value. the value or price of a commodity depends exclusively on the amount of labour going into the production of the commodity. This implies that either labour is the only factor of production or labour is used in the same fixed proportion in the production of all commodities and that labour is homogeneous, i.e. of only one type. Since neither of these assumptions is true, we cannot base the explanation of the comparative advantage on the labour theory of values specifically. Labour is not the only factor of production, nor is it used in the same fixed proportion in the production of all commodities. For example, much more capital equipment per worker is required to produce some products, such as steel, than to produce other products such as textile. In addition. there is usually some possibility of substitution between labour, capital and other factors in the production of most commodities. Furthermore, labour is obviously homogeneous but varies greatly in training, productivity and wages. At the very least. we should allow for different productivities of labour. Indeed, this is how the Ricardian theory of comparative advantage has been tested empirically. In any event, the theory of comparative advantage need not be based on the labour theory of value but can be explained on the basis of the opportunity cost theory which is acceptable. To be noted is that Ricardo himself did not believe in the labour theory of value and used it only as a simple way to explain the law of comparative advantage. The law of comparative advantage is sometimes referred to as the law of comparative cost.

Read the following passage carefully and answer the question that follows:
Under the labour theory of value. the value or price of a commodity depends exclusively on the amount of labour going into the production of the commodity. This implies that either labour is the only factor of production or labour is used in the same fixed proportion in the production of all commodities and that labour is homogeneous, i.e. of only one type. Since neither of these assumptions is true, we cannot base the explanation of the comparative advantage on the labour theory of values specifically. Labour is not the only factor of production, nor is it used in the same fixed proportion in the production of all commodities. For example, much more capital equipment per worker is required to produce some products, such as steel, than to produce other products such as textile. In addition. there is usually some possibility of substitution between labour, capital and other factors in the production of most commodities. Furthermore, labour is obviously homogeneous but varies greatly in training, productivity and wages. At the very least. we should allow for different productivities of labour. Indeed, this is how the Ricardian theory of comparative advantage has been tested empirically. In any event, the theory of comparative advantage need not be based on the labour theory of value but can be explained on the basis of the opportunity cost theory which is acceptable. To be noted is that Ricardo himself did not believe in the labour theory of value and used it only as a simple way to explain the law of comparative advantage. The law of comparative advantage is sometimes referred to as the law of comparative cost.

50. Products like steel need

  • Option : C
  • Explanation : Refer to the sentence. 'For example. much more capital equipment per worker is required to produce some products. such as steel. than to produce other products such as textile. '
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