Explanation : OBE or outcome-based evaluation starts
with clear definition of learning outcomes
to be achieved followed by designing of
curriculum and instruction on the same lines
and assessment based on that to make sure
the planned outcomes have been achieved
or desired learning ultimately has happened.
This is an innovative practice. The others
mentioned are the traditional ones.
Explanation : The experimental method is a systematic
and scientific approach to research in
which the researcher manipulates one or
more variables, and controls and measures
any change in other variables. Hypothesis
testing is a statistical analysis of experimental
data for making statistical decisions about
whether to accept or reject the null hypothesis.
Every test in hypothesis testing produces the
significance value for that particular test. If
the significance value of the test is greater
than the predetermined significance level,
then the null hypothesis is accepted, if it is
less, the null hypothesis is rejected.
Explanation : The square of opposition shown below represents the logical relationships between certain propositions in virtue of their form.
The following hold true: I. Two propositions are contradictory when the truth of one implies the falsity of the other, and conversely. 2. Two propositions are contrary when they cannot both be true. 3. Two propositions are subcontrary when it is impossible for both to be false. 4. Two propositions stand in the relation of subalternation when the truth of the first (the superaltern) implies the truth of the second (the subaltern), but not conversely.