Explanation : Straw man fallacy is giving the impression
of refuting an opponent's argument, while
actually refuting an argument that was
not presented by that opponent; in effect
making the opponent's argument/position/
stand seem more extreme or unreasonable
than is justified by what was actually
Argumentum ad baculum is appealing to
force or the threat of force to bring about
the acceptance of a conclusion.
Red Herring fallacy is introducing
irrelevant topic in an argument to divert the
attention of listeners or readers from the
Argumentum ad hominem is avoiding
the genuine discussion of the topic at hand
by attacking the character, motive, or other
attribute of the opponent.
Explanation : Good classroom communication is inclusive and emotionally satisfying to all stakeholders.
While the dynamics of indifference, exclusivity and gender bias defeats this objective; that of motivation, participation and staying organised ensures effective communication which does not stray from the topic and achieves the desired outcome.
Explanation : Formative assessment refers to the range of
formal and informal assessment procedures
conducted by teachers during the
learning process to measure participants'
development at that particular time and
diagnose the lapses and requirements;
so that teaching and learning processes/
activities could be modified to improve
student attainment. So, it identifies scope
Summative assessment is carried out after
the completion of a course/programme to
assess its achievement /outcome/success.
So, it judges leaning standards.
Norm-referenced testing measures the
position of a student in a class/group- with
respect to the trait being measured. So, it
compares a student's performance with
Criterion referenced testing evaluates and
grades students' learning against a set of
pre-specified criteria, without reference to
the achievement of others. So, it indicates
the standards of mastery.