Explanation : The term feminism is attributed to political
and sociological theories on issues of gender
difference, as well as a movement for gender
equality and protection of women's rights
and interests. Feminist research, as opposed
to traditional research, works for the dual
objectives of construction of new knowledge
and the creation of social equality.
Explanation : Likert scale: Respondents indicate the extent of
their agreement with each item on a scale (e.g.,
a five- or-seven point scale). Their score is the
sum of the scores for each item on the scale.
Guttman scale: The researcher prepares a
set of statements reflecting an increasing
intensity of attitude relating to the concept
under study. Starting at the base, the statement
with which the respondent disagrees reflects
his/her scale position.
A Thurstone scale: It consists of statements
(with a certain ascribed value each) with
which the respondent has to agree or disagree;
and only those with which they agree are
scored. The respondent's score on the scale
corresponds to the median score of the items
with which he/she agrees.
MLA is not a scale but a format of writing
Explanation : Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development: I. Sensorimotor stage--birth to age 2 2. Preoperational stage - age 2 to 7 3. Concrete operational stage----age 7 to II 4. Formal operational stage -age II (including adolescence) to adulthood
Explanation : A case study is an intensive research into a
unit/entity, which is aimed to generalize over
A cohort study samples a cohort or a group
of people who share a defining characteristic
or a common event in a selected period, such
as birth or graduation) performing a cross-
section at time intervals.
A panel study collects repeated measures of
the same unit of analysis at specified intervals
over a long period, often many years.
A blind study is done without the awareness of
the subjects to the treatment they are receiving
in order that the results are not affected by a
placebo effect (the power of suggestion).
Explanation : There are four main characteristics of a good
Reliability refers to the consistency of a
measure over time (test-retest reliability),
across items (internal consistency), and across
different researchers (inter-rater reliability).
Validity is the extent to which the test fulfills
its purpose, or the scores from a measure
represent the variable they are intended to
A test can be reliable without being valid; e.g.,
a weighing scale will give consistent scores,
other conditions being same. However, in
case the instrument is malfunctioning, the
test will still be reliable if consistent scores
are obtained but will not be valid as it may
show incorrect weight.
However, if a test is valid, it is definitely
reliable; e.g., a class test that is valid or
measures what it is intended to measure,
will also be reliable as it will give consistent
scores, provided other conditions remain
By objectivity is meant the degree to which
equally competent evaluators obtain the same
results. A test is objective when it eliminates
the evaluator's bias or prejudice.
By usability is meant the practical value of
test with respect to time, cost-effectiveness