Explanation : The proposition 'all pens are not pencils' is
equivalent to 'some pencils are pens' or 'some
pens are pencils' or 'no pen is pencil'.
But 'all pens are not pencils' is negative
proposition to 'all pens are pencils'. Hence
this is false.
Explanation : The sum of the deviations from the mean is
zero. This will always be the case as it is a
property of the sample mean i.e. the sum of the
deviation below the mean will always equal
to the sum of the deviation above the mean.
Explanation : Analogical reasoning relies upon analogy,
citing accepted similarities between two
systems to support the conclusion that
some further similarity exists. in the given
argument, the term 'is similar to' clearly
shows the comparison between writing on
paper and writing on the board.
Explanation : Linguistic content OT words of a language
of communication make up only a small
portion of observable behaviour. The non-
content aspects of behaviour, such as rate of
speaking, loudness, tendency to interrupt,
and pronunciation peculiarities, constitute
extra-linguistic behaviour or paralanguage or
'body language', e.g., vocal pitch accurately
measures emotional state.
Explanation : The proposition, 'All leaves are green' can
also be stated as 'No leaves are non-green'
(it is the obverse of the given proposition)
without any change in meaning. Again, 'non-
green' means' any colour other than green.'