Explanation : A proposition is a subaltern of another if it
must be true in case its superaltern is true,
and its superaltern must be false in case the
subaltern is false.
Sub-contrary propositions are those two
propositions which can both be true but
cannot both be false.
Two propositions are contrary, if they cannot
both be true, but they might both be false.
They have same subjects and predicates; and,
are different in qualities but have the same
Two propositions are contradictory, if one
of them is a denial of another. They cannot
both be true, and cannot both be false. They
have same subjects and predicates but are
different in quantities (all, some, no) as well
Explanation : Analog communication is one-way continuous
signal for which the time-varying feature
(variable) of the signal is a representation
of some other time varying quantity, i.e.,
analogous to another time varying signal .
Here the contents can be only linear and static
Explanation : Noise in communication is any distraction that keeps a receiver from comprehending a message completely. The four kinds of noise are: Physical noise includes environmental noise like that of traffic, music, others' talking/whispering, hearing impairment, etc., or physical condition of illness, intoxication, tiredness, etc. Semantic noise includes hindrance to understanding caused by pedantic vocabulary or regional colloquialisms, illegible verbal cues, etc. Psychological noise includes overpowering emotions, prejudices, narrow-mindedness and personal bias, etc. Physiological noise is a distraction caused by some physiological process like physical and chemical changes caused by hunger, fatigue, headache, medicine effect, etc.