Explanation : In the argument, 'Sound is permanent because
it is a product like the jar'; the probandum
(that is to be proved) 'permanent' is absent
in the subject and so it involves the fallacy
of contradiction (badha) and the probans
(reason/evidence) is called contradicted
Explanation : Inductive reasoning is ''bottom up", the chain
of evidence begins with an observation and
then combines it with the strength of previous
observations in order to arrive at a conclusion.
Deductive reasoning is "top-down" and
proceeds from one or more general axioms
and comes to a certain, specific conclusion
using logic alone. If the premises are true
and the logic of the argument is valid, the
conclusion is certainly true.