Explanation : Maintenance Roles: Maintenance leadership roles are the sets of behaviors that help the group develop and maintain cohesion,commitment, and positive working relationships. John Maxwell, a highly regarded motivational speaker who focuses on effective leadership, claims that these relational skills are the most important ones for effective leadership, even more important than task roles. Supporters encourage others to give opinions through positive body language or encouraging words. When someone contributes an idea or opinion, supporters may smile, nod, or vigorously shake their heads. They might also say things like “Good point, Drew,” “I really like that idea, Mina,”or “it’s obvious you’ve really done your homework, Bethany.” Interpreters use their knowledge about the different social, cultural, and gender orientations of group members to help group members understand each other. For example,
an interpreter might say privately to Drew,“Since Mina is Chinese, when she says she will think about he dance-a-thon idea, she
might actually not support it but doesn’t want to embarrass you in front of the others.” Mediators are impartial arbiters who help
find a mutually acceptable (win-win)resolution. Mediators do this by maintaining neutrality, keeping the discussion focused on issues and not personalities, helping to identify areas of common ground. As a mediator, Bethany might say, “So, we’ve been talking about balancing our budget by holding a dance-a-thon, a 5K fun run, and a raffle. It looks like we all agree that we should do dome kind of fundraiser to help balance our budget.” Tension relievers help relieve stress among members usually through humour. We know that appropriate humor can reduce stress, as well as build relationships and provide perspective. Fortune 500 companies such as General Electric, AT&T, Lockheed, and IBM all emphasize the value of workplace humour in their training programs. People who are effective in this leadership role might tell a joke, kid around, or tell a lighthearted story. A single well-placed one-liner can get a laught, break the tension, and jolt the group out of its lethargy. Although the tension reliever momentarily distracts the group from its task, this action helps the group remain cohesive. Procedural Roles: Procedural leadership roles provide logistical support and record the group’s accomplishments and decisions. Logistics Coordinators arrange for appropriate spaces for group meetings,
procure the supplies and equipment needed,and manage other details to meet the group’s physical needs. The logistics coordinator’s
leadership role is usually carried out beind the scenes, but it is crucial to a group’s success. Expediters keep track of the group ’s objectives and help move the group through the agenda. When the group strays, expediters make statements like “I’m enjoying this, but I can’t quite see what it has to do with resolving the issue” or “Let’s aren’t still trying to find out whether these are the only criteria that we should be considering?” Gatekeepers make sure all members have an opportunity to participate. If one or two
members begin to dominate the conversation,the gate-keeper acknowledges this and invites others to share. Gatekeepers also notice
nonverbal signals that indicate that a member wishes to speak. As a gatekeeper, Jeremy might notice that Bethany is on the edge of
her seat and appears eager to say something.He might interrupt the others to say,“Bethany, what are you thinking about? I’m
really curious.” Recorders take careful notes of group decisions and the evidence upon which they are based, sometimes called minutes.Recorders usually distribute edited copies of their notes to group members prior to the next meeting.
Explanation : Customer value is defined as the ratio between the customer’s perceived benefits (economic, functional, and psychological) and the resources (monetary, time, effort, psychological) used to obtain those benefits. Perceived value is relative and subjective. For example, the perceived value of customers who visit a famous art gallery varies, based on their knowledge, involvement, understanding abilities, and other situational factors. Customers who are artists perceive differently to that of art lovers and both to that of ordinary tourists. Some may perceive exceptionally high value and some may get dissatisfied by comparing costs including opportunity costs against the value they could perceive from the art gallery. Many customers visit McDonald’s restaurants to purchase standard, inexpensive meals from franchise owners. The employees are systematically trained by McDonald’s Corporation to deliver the company’s four core standards: quality, service, cleanliness, and value. Customers flock to McDonald’s outlets repeatedly because the restaurants are uniform, customers know what to expect and feel that they are getting value for the resources they expend.