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36. Match the items of List-II with List-I and select the correct code:

(a) H.M.L. classification(i) To determine the criticality of an item and its effect on production and other services. It is specially used for the classification of spare parts.
(b) V.E.D. classification(ii) Based on the pattern of issues from stores and is useful in controlling obsolescence and helpful in identifying action items and surplus items.
(c) SDE classification(iii) The classification unit value is the criterion and not the annual consumption.
(d) FSN classification(iv) Based on problems faced in procurements, availability of items, and useful in the context of scarcity of supply.

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40. ‘Just In Time’ originally developed in the 1970s by a Japanese company was initially known as:

  • Option : D
  • Explanation : JIT is a Japanese management philosophy that has been applied in practice since the early 1970s in many Japanese manufacturing organizations. It was first developed and perfected with the Toyota manufacturing plants by Taiichi Ohno as a means of meeting consumer demands with minimum delays (Goddard, 1986). For this reason, Taiichi Ohno is frequently referred to as the father of JIT.
    Definitions of JIT
    > JIT is a system to produce and deliver finished products on time to sellers. Required materials are just-in-time purchased to be transformed into parts and subassemblies just-in-time manufactured that are assembled into finished products (Schonberger and Gilbert 1984). This is one of the first Western interpretations of the JIT philosophy.
    > JIT is the most important technique for improving productivity and innovating since the turn of the century (Ebrahtmpour and Schonberger 1984). This definition is essential since it actually considers JIT as a means or technique that helps obtain better rates of productivity in production systems. That is, in their results obtained with the implementation of JIT, companies are favored by a number of benefits reflected on their internal indices, which indicate the efficiency and effectiveness of JIT.
    Objectives of JIT: The objectives of JIT are achieved through several physical systems or projects. Some of JIT objectives are as follows: > To reduce the set-up times and lot sizes.
    > To achieve ‘zero defects’ goal in manufacturing.
    > To focus on continuous improvement.
    > To concentrate on involving workers and using their knowledge to a greater extent.
    > Layout of equipment in such a way so as to minimizes both travel distances and inventories between the machines.
    > To reduce inventories and thus economize on inventory carrying costs.
    > To eliminate waste (such as long set-up times, zig-zag material flow, scrap, machine breakdown, higher stocks, rework, inspection, etc.).
    > To identify any problem related to waste and solve that through total employees involvement.
    > To eliminate all non-value adding activities by systematically identifying these.
    > To cross-train the workers in multifunctions to maintain and enable them to run several machines at a time.
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