Explanation : Employee orientation and induction is also called employee socialization process. In today’s world, socialization is a continuous process due to the fact that the organizations have become dynamic.
For the new employees, Decenzo and Robbins (1999) identified that the socialization process involves three distinct stages as follows:
1. Pre-Arrival Stage: At this stage, an individual employee comes to an organization with certain values, attitudes and expectations. At the selection stage only, a prospective employee needs to be enabled to understand to what extent his perceived mapping gets along with
the organizational culture and systems. It is the duty of the persons involved in the selection process to facilitate this. Nowadays because of the availability of information about organizations through different media, including Websites and Internet, an enthusiastic individual may
also have some preconceived ideas about the organization.
Therefore, it is better to first understand from the individual what he understands about the organization and then help him to synchronize this information with reality. This helps the individual to make the right decision.
2. Encounter Stage: At this stage, perceptions earlier generated by an individual, are reaffirmed through a well-planned
induction program. Any dichotomy between the employees’ perceptions and organizational perceptions needs to be properly identified and removed through increased socialization process.
3. Metamorphosis Stage: At this final stage of socialization, employees understand the organization and identify themselves with
it. Employees develop a sense of belongingness and become contributors to achieving organizational goals and objectives.
However, as explained earlier, socialization is a continuous process, as organizations are now required to go for restructuring and reengineering every now and then, keeping pace with the changing environment.
Explanation : A sweetheart contract is a contract made through collusion between management and labour representatives which contains terms
beneficial to management and unfavourable to union workers. It is also referred to as a “sweetheart agreement”.
To form a bilateral contract, both parties to the contract promise to perform an act or to refrain from performing an act. In this case,
one party’s promise is the consideration that’s exchanged for the promise of another party. A unilateral contract exists if only one party makes a promise to perform. In this case, the offeror promises to perform an act if the offeree performs an act that he knows to be the foundation of an enforceable contract.
Aleatory Contract: The occurrence of an uncertain event—a contingency—triggers the execution of an aleatory contract.
Void and Voidable Contracts: A void contract is not an enforceable contract in that it does not grant rights to any party to the
contract, not does it impose obligations. In turn, a voidable contract is an enforceable contract that the courts treat as one that does
not bind one party to its terms because that party was a victim of fraud at the execution of the contract.
For example, one party to the contract may fail to disclose a material fact to the other party to the contract.