Explanation : In 1985, industrial psychologist Bernard Bass identified and wrote about four basic elements that underlie transformational leadership. 1. Individualized Consideration: The degree to which the leader attends to each follower’s needs, acts as a mentor or coach to the follower, and listens to the follower’s concerns and needs. The leader gives empathy and support, keeps communication open, and places challenges before the followers. This also encompasses the need for respect and celebrates the individual contribution that each follower can make to the team. The followers have a will and aspirations for self-development and have intrinsic motivation for their tasks. 2. Intellectual Stimulation: The degree to which the leader challenges assumptions, takes risks, and solicits followers’ ideas.
Leaders with this style stimulate and encourage creativity in their followers. They nurture and develop people who think independently. For such a leader, learning is a value and unexpected situations are seen as opportunities to learn. The followers ask questions, think deeply about things and figure out better ways to execute their tasks. 3. Inspirational Motivation: The degree to which the leader articulates a vision that is appealing and inspiring to followers. Leaders with inspirational motivation challenge followers with high standards, communicate optimism about future goals and provide meaning for the task at hand. Followers need to have a strong sense of purpose if they are to be motivated to act. Purpose and meaning provide the energy that drives a group forward. The visionary aspects of leadership are supported by communication skills that make the vision understandable, precise, powerful, and engaging. The followers are willing to invest more effort in their tasks, they are encouraged and optimistic about the future and belief in their abilities. 4. Idealized Influence: Provides a role model for high ethical behavior, instills pride, gains respect, and trust. As a development tool, transformational leadership has spread already in all sectors of western societies, including governmental organizations.
Explanation : The various sources of resistance to change and its coping mechanisms include the following: (i) Perceived Peripherality of Change:Implementation of change can be effective if the introduced change is seen as critical
and useful, which can be achieved by the participation of the concerned people in the diagnosis of the issues or problems. (ii) Perception of Imposition: When people see the change as being imposed, they tend to resist it. The resistance can be
overcome by involving people in the introduction of change at several stages. (iii) The indifference of the Top Management: The managers are role models. If their attitude shows indifference, people also tend to resist change. The best way to overcome resistance is by the commitment of the leader and by his/her active support for change management. (iv) Vested Interests: The vested interests of people cause resistance to change. Once people experience the change, they often enjoy it and may see its positive aspects. (v) Complacency and Inertia: As change produces discomfort, it is resisted. The solution to the problem is to introduce
the change and help people experience new conditions. (vi) Fear of Large Scale Disturbance: The fear that the proposed change is likely to lead to some other changes with
unpredictable consequences might result in resistance. Phasing out the change could help overcome the resistance.
(vii) Fear of Inadequate Resources: Whenever the change requires additional resources in the form of new skills, additional manpower, or budget, resistance is likely to be greater. A genuine need for the resources need to be supported by the top management for
overcoming resistance. (viii) Fear of Obsolescence: People resist change as they fear that they may become obsolete as they lack those skills which are required for coping with the change. Organizations should provide opportunities to those people in the development of the required skills, which could help to overcome resistance. (ix) Fear of Loss of Power: Any change would result in some roles in the organization to lose power. This feeling of loss of power could lead to resistance. In order to overcome this resistance, there is a need to redefine and redesign the roles.
(x) Fear of Overload: If the change is perceived to increase the workload of people, they tend to resist the change. There is a need to bring in more of role clarity to overcome the resistance.
Explanation : According to the Industrial Disputes Act 1947, Strike [Sec. 2 (q)]: Strike means “a cessation of work by a body of persons employed in
any industry acting in combination or a concerted refusal under a common understanding of any number of persons who
are or have been so employed, to continue to work or to accept employment”. Mere stoppage of work does not come within
the meaning of strike unless it can be shown that such stoppage of work was a concerted action for the enforcement of an industrial
Wildcat strike, work stoppage undertook by employees without the consent of their respective unions. Such strikes are not
necessarily illegal, but they often violate terms of a collective bargaining agreement. The name is based on the stereotypical
characteristics associated with wildcats: unpredictability and uncontrollability. These terms of description are often applied by the
employers, the media, and the state, not the workers themselves. Sympathetic Strike: When workers of one unit or industry go on strike in sympathy with workers of another unit or industry who are already on strike, it is called a sympathetic strike. The members of other unions involve themselves in a strike to support or express their sympathy with the members of unions who are on strike in other undertakings. The workers of the sugar industry may go on
strike in sympathy with their fellow workers of the textile industry who may already be on strike.
Slow Down Strike: Go-slow is yet another form of industrial protest in which workmen do not stop the work but deliberately slow down the process of production in order to cause loss of production to the employer. It must be noted that there is no cessation of work at all, and in fact, workmen pretend themselves as engaged in doing their work. Jurisdictional Strike: Jurisdictional strikes are conducted with a view to forcing an employer to recognize or bargain with a particular trade union instead of another. Two unions may claim to represent the same set of workers and may clamor for recognition for this purpose. One of the contestants may go on strike to pressurize the employer to accept its representational claim. As a matter of fact, two unions quarrel for their respective jurisdictions, and the strike is the result of this dispute. Hence, such strikes are known as jurisdictional strikes.