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76. Which of the following is not a principle of ‘Hot Stove Rule’?

  • Option : D
  • Explanation : The “Hot-Stove Rule” The “Hot-Stove Rule” of Douglas McGregor gives a good illustration of how to impose disciplinary action without generating resentment. This rule draws an analogy between touching a hot stove and undergoing discipline. When you touch a hot stove, your discipline is immediate, with a warning, consistent, and impersonal. These four characteristics, according to McGregor, as applied to discipline are self-serving and maybe explained as follows:
    1. When you touch the hot stove, you burn your hand. The burn was immediate. Will you blame the hot stove for burning your hand? Immediately, you understand the cause and effect of the offense. The discipline was directed against the act not against anybody else. You get angry with yourself, but you know it was your fault. You get angry with the hot stove too, but not for long as you know it was not its fault. You learn your lesson quickly.
    2. You had warning as you knew the stove was red hot and you knew what would happen to you if you touched it. You knew the rules and regulations previously issued to you by the company prescribing the penalty for violation of any particular rule so you cannot claim you were not given a previous warning.
    3. The discipline was consistent. Every time you touch the hot stove you get burned. Consistency in the administration of disciplinary action is essential. Excessive leniency as well as too much harshness creates not only dissatisfaction but also resentment.
    4. The discipline was impersonal. Whoever touches the hot stove gets burned, no matter who he is. Furthermore, he gets burned not because of who he is, but because he touched the hot stove. The discipline is directed against the act, not against the person. After disciplinary action has been applied, the supervisor should take the normal attitude toward the employee.
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77. In India, tripartite bodies of industrial relations began on the recommendations of which one of the following commissions?

  • Option : B
  • Explanation : Tripartism in India’s Industrial Relations System Consultations amongst the three actors of industrial relations, namely, the employer, the employee and the State, since the initial years have been the cornerstone of IR policy in India. To give shape to this element of policy, a number of bodies and fora were created. Every major piece of policy initiative has emerged out of consultations amongst the three parties. The consultative machinery has been operationalized through a large number of tripartite bodies set up by the government to provide a forum to discuss and deliberate upon labour issues, policies and legislations. Notable among these are:
    (i) Indian Labour Conference (ILC)
    (ii) Standing Labour Committee (SLC)
    (iii) Committee on Conventions
    (iv) The Industrial Committees The need and evolution of these tripartite bodies are based on the recommendations of ILO (itself tripartite in nature) and the Royal Commission on Labour (Whitley Commission) in 1931. The rules and procedures of the Indian tripartite consultative machinery is largely in tune with the recommendations of the ILO Committee on Consultation and Cooperation. The Indian Labour Conference (ILC) and Standing Labour Committee (SLC) is the most important constituents of tripartite bodies that play a vital role in shaping the IR system of the country. The representatives of the workers and employers are nominated to these bodies by the central government in consultation with the all-India organization of workers and employers.
    The highest tripartite mechanism in the country, the Indian Labour Conference and the Standing Labour Committee was set up in 1942 “to advise the Government of India on matters brought to its notice”. The objectives set before these two tripartite bodies at the time of their inception were:
    (i) to promote uniformity in labour legislation;
    (ii) to lay down a procedure for the settlement of industrial disputes; and
    (iii) to discuss all matters of all-India importance as between employers and employees.
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78. The extrinsic properties of the product or service, including the ways in which the brand attempts to meet customers’ psychological or social needs, is known as:

  • Option : C
  • Explanation : Brand Imagery
    The main type of brand meaning is brand imagery. Brand imagery depends on the extrinsic properties of the product or service, including the ways in which the brand attempts to meet customers’ psychological or social needs. It is the way people think about a brand abstractly, rather than what they think the brand actually does. Thus, imagery refers to more intangible aspects of the brand, and consumers can form imagery associations directly from their own experience or indirectly through advertising or by some other source of information, such as word of mouth. Many kinds of intangibles can be linked to a brand, but four main ones are:
    1. User profiles
    2. Purchase and usage situations
    3. Personality and values
    4. History, heritage, and experiences
    For example, take a brand with rich brand imagery, such as Nivea skin cream in Europe. Some of its intangible associations include: family/shared experiences/maternal; multipurpose; classic/timeless; and childhood memories.
    One set of brand imagery associations is about the type of person or organization who uses the brand. This imagery may result in customers’ mental image of actual users or more aspirational, idealized users. Consumers may base associations of a typical or idealized brand user on descriptive demographic factors or more abstract psychographic factors. Demographic factors might include the following:
    > Gender: Venus razors and Secret deodorant have “feminine” associations, whereas Marlboro cigarettes and Right Guard deodorant have more “masculine” associations.
    > Age. Pepsi Cola, Powerade energy sports drink, and Fuji film have positioned themselves as younger than Coke, Gatorade, and Kodak, respectively.
    > Race: Goya foods and the Univision television network have a strong identification with the Hispanic market.
    > Income: Sperry Topsider shoes, Polo shirts, and BMW automobiles have been associated with yuppies—young, affluent, urban professionals.
    Psychographic factors might include attitudes toward life, careers, possessions, social issues, or political institutions; for example, a brand user might be seen as iconoclastic or as more traditional and conservative.
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79. Which one of the following is an example of the ‘real needs’ of a customer?

  • Option : B
  • Explanation : Marketing focuses primarily on customer needs, since they are the underlying force for making purchasing decisions. These needs can be further broken down as follows:
    > Stated needs—what customers say they want; for example, “I need a sealant for my window panes for the winter.”
    > Real needs—what customers actually require; for example, a house that is better insulated and therefore warmer during the winter.
    > Unstated needs—requirements that customers don’t happen to mention, for example, an easy solution to insulating the house.
    > Delight needs—the desire for luxuries, as compared to real needs.
    > Secret needs—needs that customers feel reluctant to admit; for example, some people may have a strong need for social status but feel uncomfortable about admitting that status is important to them.
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