Explanation : The “Hot-Stove Rule”
The “Hot-Stove Rule” of Douglas McGregor
gives a good illustration of how to impose
disciplinary action without generating
resentment. This rule draws an analogy
between touching a hot stove and
undergoing discipline. When you touch a
hot stove, your discipline is immediate, with
a warning, consistent, and impersonal.
These four characteristics, according to
McGregor, as applied to discipline are self-serving
and maybe explained as follows:
1. When you touch the hot stove, you burn
your hand. The burn was immediate. Will
you blame the hot stove for burning your
hand? Immediately, you understand the
cause and effect of the offense. The
discipline was directed against the act not
against anybody else. You get angry with
yourself, but you know it was your fault.
You get angry with the hot stove too, but
not for long as you know it was not its
fault. You learn your lesson quickly.
2. You had warning as you knew the stove
was red hot and you knew what would
happen to you if you touched it. You knew
the rules and regulations previously issued
to you by the company prescribing the
penalty for violation of any particular rule
so you cannot claim you were not given
a previous warning.
3. The discipline was consistent. Every time
you touch the hot stove you get burned.
Consistency in the administration of
disciplinary action is essential. Excessive
leniency as well as too much harshness
creates not only dissatisfaction but also
4. The discipline was impersonal. Whoever
touches the hot stove gets burned, no
matter who he is. Furthermore, he gets
burned not because of who he is, but
because he touched the hot stove. The
discipline is directed against the act, not
against the person. After disciplinary action
has been applied, the supervisor should
take the normal attitude toward the
Explanation : Tripartism in India’s Industrial Relations
Consultations amongst the three actors of
industrial relations, namely, the employer,
the employee and the State, since the initial
years have been the cornerstone of IR policy
in India. To give shape to this element of
policy, a number of bodies and fora were
created. Every major piece of policy initiative
has emerged out of consultations amongst
the three parties. The consultative machinery
has been operationalized through a large
number of tripartite bodies set up by the
government to provide a forum to discuss
and deliberate upon labour issues, policies
and legislations. Notable among these are:
(i) Indian Labour Conference (ILC)
(ii) Standing Labour Committee (SLC)
(iii) Committee on Conventions
(iv) The Industrial Committees
The need and evolution of these tripartite
bodies are based on the recommendations of
ILO (itself tripartite in nature) and the
Royal Commission on Labour (Whitley
Commission) in 1931. The rules and
procedures of the Indian tripartite consultative
machinery is largely in tune with the
recommendations of the ILO Committee on
Consultation and Cooperation. The Indian
Labour Conference (ILC) and Standing
Labour Committee (SLC) is the most
important constituents of tripartite bodies
that play a vital role in shaping the IR system
of the country. The representatives of the
workers and employers are nominated to these
bodies by the central government in
consultation with the all-India organization
of workers and employers.
The highest tripartite mechanism in the
country, the Indian Labour Conference and
the Standing Labour Committee was set up
in 1942 “to advise the Government of India
on matters brought to its notice”. The
objectives set before these two tripartite
bodies at the time of their inception were:
(i) to promote uniformity in labour
(ii) to lay down a procedure for the settlement
of industrial disputes; and
(iii) to discuss all matters of all-India
importance as between employers and
Explanation : Brand Imagery
The main type of brand meaning is brand imagery. Brand imagery depends on the extrinsic properties of the product or service,
including the ways in which the brand attempts to meet customers’ psychological or social needs. It is the way people think about
a brand abstractly, rather than what they think the brand actually does. Thus, imagery refers to more intangible aspects of the brand, and
consumers can form imagery associations directly from their own experience or indirectly through advertising or by some other source of information, such as word of mouth. Many kinds of intangibles can be linked to a brand, but four main ones are:
1. User profiles
2. Purchase and usage situations
3. Personality and values
4. History, heritage, and experiences
For example, take a brand with rich brand imagery, such as Nivea skin cream in Europe. Some of its intangible associations include:
family/shared experiences/maternal; multipurpose; classic/timeless; and childhood memories.
One set of brand imagery associations is about the type of person or organization who uses the brand. This imagery may result in
customers’ mental image of actual users or more aspirational, idealized users. Consumers may base associations of a typical or idealized
brand user on descriptive demographic factors or more abstract psychographic factors. Demographic factors might include the
> Gender: Venus razors and Secret deodorant have “feminine” associations, whereas Marlboro cigarettes and Right Guard
deodorant have more “masculine” associations.
> Age. Pepsi Cola, Powerade energy sports drink, and Fuji film have positioned themselves as younger than Coke, Gatorade, and Kodak, respectively.
> Race: Goya foods and the Univision television network have a strong identification with the Hispanic market.
> Income: Sperry Topsider shoes, Polo shirts, and BMW automobiles have been associated with yuppies—young, affluent, urban professionals.
Psychographic factors might include attitudes toward life, careers, possessions, social issues, or political institutions; for example, a brand
user might be seen as iconoclastic or as more traditional and conservative.
Explanation : Marketing focuses primarily on customer needs, since they are the underlying force for making purchasing decisions. These needs
can be further broken down as follows:
> Stated needs—what customers say they want; for example, “I need a sealant for my window panes for the winter.”
> Real needs—what customers actually require; for example, a house that is better insulated and therefore warmer during the winter.
> Unstated needs—requirements that customers don’t happen to mention, for example, an easy solution to insulating the house.
> Delight needs—the desire for luxuries, as compared to real needs.
> Secret needs—needs that customers feel reluctant to admit; for example, some people may have a strong need for social status but feel uncomfortable about admitting that status is important to them.