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66. Match the items of List-(II) with those of List-(I) and choose the correct code of combination:

(a) Procedural Justice(i) Justice to a particular community which has been suffering in the past from injustice.
(b) Commutative Justice(ii) Treat equal people equally and unequal people unequally.
(c) Communitarian Justice(iii) Justice is ensured at the beginning and all people are treated equally.
(d) Distributive Justice(iv) Actions performed complying with the law.

  • Option : B
  • Explanation : Types of Justice: There are many types of justice. These are briefly explained in the following pages.
    1. Procedural Justice: There may be justice in an act. However, what is important is to see whether that action has been performed complying to the law or through a correct procedure. For instance, a laborer is asked to do a job but is forced to accept the terms and conditions imposed by the employer. Here the procedure is unjust. In the same way, the property of a poor person can be transferred or sold in an illegal manner or by force. These types of actions go against procedural justice.
    2. Commutative Justice: Commutative justice is a form of justice where fairness or justice is ensured at the beginning and all people are treated equally. In other words, people start on the level field. The background of the people is totally irrelevant in the case of commutative justice. Commutative justice also ensures that all people are given equal opportunities for development. Further, the fairness of exchange between two or more parties involved is of prime consideration. Thus, it is said that the remuneration to a factor of production must be equal to its marginal productivity. In such a case, there is no exploitation; and justice is done to the factor of production. It is in this sense that the neoclassical theory of distribution can be said to be just.
    3. Compensatory Justice: In the case of compensatory justice, some compensation is given to the person who has been treated unequally in the past. The point is that the compensation for the injustice done in the past must be proportional or equivalent to the loss sustained by an individual in question. But, in many cases, it is difficult to assess the appropriate amount of financial compensation. For instance, if somebody has lost his hand while working in a factory, what would an accurate compensation be? The payment of a particular amount sanctioned by the factory or by a legal institution may not take into account his all-round incapability, social stigma, and future losses in the absence of his hand. However, in the present social the system, some amount of compensation is granted, depending not on the requirements of the loser but on the capability of the person giving the compensation.
    4. Retributive Justice: This ensures some form of punishment to a defaulter. The imposition of fines or penalties, however, may not be adequate or just in a particular situation. Sometimes, the punishment may be more than what is needed and sometimes, it may be less than what is necessary. There is no objective criterion to impose just punishments in several cases, whether it is fixed by the court of law or done by a particular person to whom wrong has been done. Thus, where simple fine should be imposed, the authorities may order rigorous imprisonment. The basic purpose of retributive justice is to prevent the person from doing a similar type of unjust work in the future. This is often not done in actual practice. In the case of retributive justice, the main criterion for punishment should be the motivation for the crime or what is called mens rea. If the motive for the crime is not established beyond a reasonable doubt, it is unjust to impose any punishment.
    5. Communitarian Justice: This refers to a system of justice shown to the particular a community that has been suffering in the past from injustice (say, the tribal people in Australia). Tribal people in many countries are not given equal freedom and rights like other citizens. Therefore, communitarian justice will imply that these people are given some rights and liberties which may be political or economic in nature.
    6. Distributive Justice: Distributive Justice is very critical for human society as a whole. The basic idea of distributive justice is to treat equal people equally and unequal people unequally. Therefore, it can be either vertical or horizontal in character. The principle of distributive justice upholds the view that the benefits and burdens in a society must be distributed equally among its members. However, there may arise a situation where the resources to be distributed are limited compared to the number of persons sharing these resources. In such a case, certain principles need to be followed like first-come-first served, ladies first or the sick and disabled people may be given more preference than a normal person.
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68. The “Polluters must pay” principle is commonly accepted practice that those who produce pollution should bear the cost of managing it to prevent damage to human health or the environment. This principle was adopted in:

  • Option : C
  • Explanation : This principle underpins most of the regulation of pollution affecting land, water and air. Pollution is defined in UK law as contamination of the land, water or air by harmful or potentially harmful substances.
    Part of a set of broader principles to guide sustainable development worldwide (formally known as the 1992 Rio Declaration), the polluter pays principle has also been applied more specifically to emissions of greenhouse gases that cause climate change.
    Greenhouse gas emissions are considered a form of pollution because they cause potential harm and damage through impacts on the climate. However, in this case, because society has been slow to recognize the link between greenhouse gases and climate change, and because the atmosphere is considered by some to be a ‘global commons’ (that everyone shares and has a right to use), emitters are generally not held responsible for controlling this form of pollution.
    However, it is possible to implement the ‘polluter pays’ principle through a so-called carbon price. As we’ll discuss in future questions in this series, this imposes a charge on the emission of greenhouse gases equivalent to the corresponding potential cost caused by future climate change. In this way, a financial incentive is created for a factory, for instance, to minimize its costs by reducing emissions.
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70. Who among the following has not given a model on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)?

  • Option : A
  • Explanation : There are a few models available on CSR.
    1. Friedman Model
    2. Ackerman Model
    3. Carroll Model
    4. Environmental Integrity and Community Health Model
    5. Corporate Citizenship Model
    6. Stockholders and Stakeholders Model
    7. Towards a New Model of CSR
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