Explanation : According to Henri Fayol, every organisation requires management. Managers, according to him, need certain qualities, knowledge and experience. These include physical qualities (health, vigour and behaviour), mental qualities (ability to understand and learn, judgement and adaptability), moral qualities (willingness to accept responsibility, loyalty and dignity), general education (general acquaintance with matters not belonging exclusively to the function performed), special knowledge (functional expertise) and experience (knowledge arising from work). Fayol enunciated 14 classic principles of management that include division of work, authority, discipline, unity of command, unity of direction, subordination of individual interests to the general interest, remuneration, centralisation, scalar chain (line of authority), order, equity, stability of tenure, initiative and esprit de corps. Based on this, he also postulated the ‘elements’ of management that include planning, organising, staffing, coordinating, commanding and controlling.
Explanation : V. A. Graicunas, A French management consultant, suggested mathematical formulas to fix the number of subordinates under one superior. He identified three types of relationships between superiors and subordinates. They are: 1. Direct Single Relationships: Such relations arise from the direct individual contract of superior with subordinates. If there are three subordinates, there will be three direct single relationships. 2. Direct Group Relationships: Such relations arise between the superior and subordinates in all possible combinations. If there are three subordinates, there will be nine possible combinations. 3. Cross Relationships: Such relations arise because of mutual interactions of subordinates under one superior. If there are three subordinates, there will be six relationships. Graicunas gave the following formulas to find out the number of relationships with n number of subordinates, which determine the span of control: Direct single relationships = n Direct group relationships = n (2n–1 – 1) Cross relationships = n(n – 1) Total relationships = n (2n / 2 + n – 1) Cross relationships = n (n – 1) = 3(3 – 1) = 6
Explanation : Reddin combined Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid with Fiedler’s contingency leadership-style theory. The outcome was a three-dimensional theory of management, the dimensions being adapted from:
1. Managerial Grid theory
2. Contingency leadership-style theory
3. Effectiveness theory These possible combinations result in four basic leadership styles (See Fig.).
1. Separated, in which both task orientation and relationship orientation are minimal.
2. Dedicated, in which task orientation is high and relationship orientation low. Dedicated leaders are dedicated only to the job.
3. Related, in which relationship orientation is high and task orientation is low. Related leaders relate primarily to their subordinates.
4. Integrated, in which both task relationships and orientation are high. Integrated leaders focus on managerial behaviour, combining
task orientation and relationship orientation. These management styles are graphically represented by the first two dimensions
(height and width) of Fig.
> “Executive” leaders are integrated and are more effective than “compromiser” leaders, who are less-effective integrated leaders.
> “Developer” leaders are related and are more effective than “missionary” leaders, who are less-effective related leaders.
> “Bureaucrat” leaders are separated and are more effective than “deserter” leaders, who are less-effective separated leaders.
> Benevolent autocrat” leaders are dedicated and are more effective than “autocrat” leaders, who are less-effective dedicated leaders.
Explanation : Attribution theory is concerned with the relationship between personal social perception and interpersonal behaviour. There
are a number of attribution theories, but they share the following assumptions:
1. We seek to make sense of our world.
2. We often attribute people’s actions either to internal or external causes.
3. We do so in fairly logical ways.
Well-known social psychologist Harold Kelley stressed that attribution theory is concerned mainly with the cognitive processes by which
an individual interprets behaviour as being caused by (or attributed to) certain parts of the relevant environment. It is concerned with
the “why” questions of work motivation and organizational behaviour. Because most causes, attributes, and “whys” are not directly
observable, the theory says that people must depend on cognitions, particularly perception. The attribution theorist assumes
that humans are rational and are motivated to identify and understand the causal structure of their relevant environment. It is this search
for attributes that characterizes attribution theory and helps explain work motivation. Attribution theory has its roots in all the
pioneering cognitive theorists work (for example, that of Lewin and Festinger), in de Charmes’s ideas on cognitive evaluation, and
in Bern’s notion of “self-perception,” the theory’s initiator is generally recognized to be Fritz Heider. Heider believed that both
internal forces (personal attributes such as ability, effort, and fatigue) and external forces (environmental attributes such as rules and
the weather) combine additively to determine behaviour. He stressed that it is the perceived, not the actual, determinants that are important
to behaviour. People will behave differently if they perceive internal attributes than they will if they perceive external attributes. It is
this concept of differential ascriptions that has very important implications for motivation and organizational behaviour in general.