Avatto>>UGC NET Management>>PREVIOUS YEAR SOLVED PAPERS>>UGC NET Management December 2019

6. Match the following approaches of moral reasoning with their propounders:

Moral ReasoningProponder(s)
(a) Consequentialism Approach(i) Thomas Hobbes, Ayow Rand
(b) Deontological Approach(ii) Aristotle
(c) Natural law theory(iii) Ronald F. White
(d) Theological Approach(iv) W.D. Ross, John Rawls
Choose the correct option from those given below:

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7. Public Relations as a part of a promotion in marketing refers to:

  • Option : A
  • Explanation : Role of Public Relations in Promotion
    Not only must the company relate constructively to consumers, suppliers, and dealers, but it must also relate to a large number of interested public. The business world of today is extremely competitive. Companies need to have an edge that makes them stand out from the crowd, something that makes them more appealing and interesting to both the public and the media. The public is the buyers of the product and the media is responsible for selling it. A public is any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on a company’s ability to achieve its objectives. Public relations involve a variety of programs designed to promote or protect a company’s image or its individual products.
    The main goal of public relations the department is to enhance a company’s reputation. The staff that work in public relations, or as it is commonly known, PR, are skilled publicists. They are able to present a company or individual to the world in the best light. The role of public relations the department can be seen as that of reputation protector.
    Definition: According to Philip Koller and Gary Armstrong, public relation means ‘building good relations with the company’s various publics by obtaining favorable publicity, building up a good corporate I'm age, and handling or heading o ff unfavorable rumors, stories, and events.
    Role of Public Relations: Public relation has two types of functions—marketing and nonmarketing.
    1. Marketing funtions: According to Thomas L. Harris, ‘marketing public relation functions is the PR activities which is designed to support marketing objectives’. Some of the marketing objectives that may be aided by PR activities includes raising awareness, informing and educating, gaining understanding, building trust, giving consumers a reason to buy and motivating consumer acceptance.
    2. Non-marketing PR functions: As a nonmarketing function, the primary responsibility of a PR executive is to maintain mutually beneficial relationship between the organization and the public, employees, community, investors, government, customers and other interest groups. At the other end of the continuum, PR is primarily considered to have marketing communication functions. In this, all noncustomer relationships are perceived as necessary only in a marketing context.
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9. In-Service Quality GAPS model proposed by Parasuraman et al, Gap 4 refers to:

  • Option : B
  • Explanation : Two groups of researchers have been studying the construct of perceived service quality: the Nordic School and North-American School. The emblematic model of the Nordic School is the Image Model or Perceived Overall Quality, which regards the quality perceived by customers as the result of a co m parison of the service image that customers have prior to receiving the service with the image in their mind after experiencing the service. Thus, Grönroos (1990) considers that the quality experienced by a customer is based on two dimensions (technical quality and functional quality), moderated or influenced by the corporate image, which acts as a filter. However, The North-Am American School (Parasuram an, Zeithaml and Berry, 1988) defines service quality as the customer’s assessment of the overall excellence or superiority of the service. The Gaps Model (Parasuraman et al., 1985) proposed four possible gaps that could occur in the process to provide the service. Gap 5 is a function of the four initial gaps, which represents the difference between initial expectations and the perceived service experienced by customers:
    GAP 1 – the difference between the customer’s expectations and management perceptions of customer expectations;
    GAP 2 – the difference between the firm’s quality specifications and management perceptions of customer expectations of the service and it's quality;
    GAP 3 – is the difference between the quality of the service delivery and quality specifications:
    GAP 4 – is the difference between the quality of the service delivery and the the quality promised in communicating the service.
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10. Who propounded the ‘Force-Field theory’ of the change process?

  • Option : A
  • Explanation : A wide variety of forces make organizations resistant to change, and a wide variety of forces push organizations toward change. Researcher Kurt Lewin developed a theory about organizational change. According to his force-field theory, these two sets of forces are always in opposition to an organization. When the forces are evenly balanced, the organization is in a state of inertia and does not change. To get an organization to change, managers must find a way to increase the forces for change, reduce resistance to change, or do both simultaneously. Any of these strategies will overcome inertia and cause an organization to change.
    Figure illustrates Lewin’s theory. An organization at performance level P1 is in balance: Forces for change and resistance to change are equal. Management, however, decides that the organization should strive to achieve performance level P2. To get to level P2, managers must increase the forces for change (the increase is represented by the lengthening of the up arrows), reduce resistance to change (the reduction is represented by the shortening of the down arrows), or do both. If they pursue any of the three strategies successfully, the organization will change and reach performance level P2.

    Figure: Lewin’s Force-Field Theory of Change
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