Explanation : The Right to Information Bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha in December 2004. It was passed by both houses of Parliament in May 2005. The assent of the President was received on 15th June and the Act was notified in The Gazette of India on 21st June. The Right to Information Act has become operational by the 12th October, 2005 after the completion of 120 days from the date of Presidential assent. The Freedom of Information Act passed by Parliament in 2002 has been repealed. The Right to Information Act (RTI Act) will cover all levels of government-Centre, State, district and local-self governing bodies like Panchayats and Municipal bodies. It will also cover non-governmental organisations, i.e., NGOs and other private bodies—that are financed substantially with the public funds provided by the government. This means every citizen has the right to put in an application requesting information or copies of records held by these bodies and such information should be given by the concerned body. The citizens’ right to information is not explicitly mentioned in the Fundamental Rights chapter of the Constitution. But in many cases, the Supreme Court of India has declared that the fundamental right to life and liberty [Art. 21] and the fundamental right to freedom of speech and expression [A rt. 19(1 )] include every citizen's fundamental right to access information. Parliament passed the RTI Act to enable all citizens to use their fundamental right to access information from public bodies. The main objectives of the RTI Act are: ∎ to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority; and ∎ to set-up a practical regime for giving citizens access to information that is under the control of public authorities. Definition of Information ∎ Information means material in any form including records, documents, memos, e-mails, opinions, advices, press releases, circulars, orders, logbooks, contracts, reports, papers, samples, models, data material held in any electronic form; and ∎ Information relating to any private body which can be accessed by a public authority under any other law for the time being in force. Definition of Record ∎ Any document, manuscript or file; ∎ Any microfilm, microfiche and facsimile copy of a document; ∎ Any reproduction of image or images embodied in such micro-film (whether enlarged or not); and ∎ Any other material produced by a computer or any other device. Definition of Right to Information: Right to information accessible under this Act which is held by or under the control of any public authority and includes the right to: ∎ Inspection of work, documents, records; ∎ Taking notes, extracts or certified copies of documents or records; ∎ Taking certified samples of material; and ∎ Obtaining information in the form of diskettes, floppies, tapes, video cassettes or in any other electronic mode or through printouts where such information is stored in a computer or in any other device. One of the guiding principles of the RTI Act is—“information” which cannot be denied to Parliament or a State Legislature shall not be denied to any person”.
Explanation : Objectives of the Competition Act 2002 are: 1. To protect the interests of the consumers by providing them good products and services at reasonable prices. 2. To promote healthy competition in the Indian market. 3. To prevent the interests of the smaller companies or prevent the ab use of dominant position in the market. 4. To prevent those practices which have adverse impact on competition in the Indian markets. 5. To ensure freedom of trade in Indian markets. 6. To regulate the operation and activities of combinations (acquisitions, mergers and amalgamation).
Explanation : While the complexities of supply chains have increased in recent years, the basic structures of supply chains are fairly straightforward, as shown in Figure. The figure shows three basic supply chain structures, divided into two types: indirect and direct supply chains. Indirect supply chains utilize one or more marketing intermediaries to get products from the producer to the consumer. The number of intermediaries can vary widely depending on the product type and place strategy. The trend in recent years has been to use fewer intermediaries as power and control has shifted to retailers who have begun taking on their own wholesaling operations. Traditional indirect supply chains include wholesalers, while others only include a retailer. The tendency for retailers to bring wholesaling in-house has led to a decline in the number of independent wholesalers.
Producers use direct retail supply chains when selling directly to consumers. Online retailing had driven growth in direct supply chains that bypass physical stores and sell directly to consumers through their websites.