Explanation : Based on his vast and rich experience as the chief executive of a French mining company in France, Henri Fayol (1949) developed his fourteen principles of management during the same time period as Frederick W. Taylor. The basic difference between Taylor and Fayol’s principles of management was that Taylor was concerned with management at the shop level and used the scientific method, Fayol who was a practitioner, was concerned with the activities of all managers. His management thought is known as ‘administrative management’ and he is considered as the ‘father of the administrative management.’ Following are the widely talked and discussed fourteen principles of management developed by Henri Fayol: 1. Division of Work: Specialization of lab our increases output by making employees more efficient. 2. Authority: Managers must be given authority which, in turn, gives them right to give orders. However, along with authority must go responsibility too. 3. Discipline: Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organization. This helps an organization run smoothly. 4. Unity of Command: Every employee should receive orders from only one superior. 5. Unity of Direction: The efforts of each employee in the organization having the same objective should be directed by one manager in the same direction. 6. Subordination of Individual Interests to General Interests: The interests of the organization as a whole should be above the interests of the individual employees. 7. Remuneration: Employees should be paid fair remuneration for the services rendered by them. 8. Centralization: A proper proportion should be evolved between involving the employees in decision-making activity (decentralization) and decision made by the management (centralization). 9. Scalar Chain: Communication should follow from the top management to the lowest ranks of the employees. 10. Order: Both people and materials should be in the right place at the right time. 11. Equity: Managers should be fair and kind to their subordinates. 12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel: Management should make proper personnel planning to ensure that replacements are available to fill vacancies. 13. Initiative: Employees should be allowed and encouraged to initiate the preparation of plans. 14. Esprit de corps: Promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity within the organization. The team spirit is the key to organizational success. Based on his above ‘Fourteen Principles of Management,’ Henri Fayol regarded the basic elements of management as the functions of—planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.
Explanation : Brainstorming was developed by A.F. Osborn, an advertising executive, to in crease creativity. Brainstorming is used to help groups generate multiple ideas and alternatives for solving problems. This technique is effective because it helps reduce interference caused by critical and judgmental reactions to one’s ideas from other group members. When brainstorming, a group is convened, and the problem at hand is reviewed. Individual members then are asked to silently generate ideas/alternatives for solving the problem . Silent idea generation is recommended over the practice of having group members randomly shout out their ideas because it leads to a greater number of unique ideas. Next, these ideas/alternatives are solicited and written on a board or flip chart. A recent study suggests that managers or team leaders may want to collect the brainstormed ideas anonymously. Results demonstrated that more controversial ideas and more nonredundant ideas were generated by anonymous than nonanoymous brainstorming groups. Finally, a second session is used to critique and evaluate the alternatives.
Explanation : Transfer of Capital Redemption Reserve = Nominal value of preference shares to be redeemed – proceeds from issue of shares = 2,00,000 – (80,000 – 80,000 × 10%) = 2,00,000 – (80,000 – 8,000) = 2,00,000 – 72,000 = 1,28,000.