UGC NET COMMERCE SOLVED PAPERS 2017-19 - UGC NET COMMERCE December 2018

>>>>>>>>UGC NET COMMERCE December 2018

• Option : D
• Explanation : To begin with, we consider the mean deviation and standard deviation. To calculate mean deviation, absolute deviations are used whereas the calculation of standard deviation calls for squaring the deviations before averaging them and taking the square root. The squaring of deviations places relatively larger weights to the bigger deviation values. The result is that the standard deviation is always higher than the mean deviation. Further, quartile deviation is always smaller than the standard deviation and the mean deviation. The relationship between the three measures is defined precisely in respect of a normal distribution.
That mean deviation is about 80 per cent of the standard deviation. Conversely, the standard deviation is about 1.25 times the mean deviation. Further, quartile deviation is approximately two-thirds of the standard deviation and five-sixths of the mean deviation. Thus, the relationships given here may be summarized as follows:
4 SD = 5 MD = 6 QD
Here, SD is standard deviation, MD is mean deviation and QD is quartile deviation.

• Option : C
• Explanation : Managerial Skills and Competencies: Skills of managers have now become an important factor to address global competitiveness both at organizational and national level. However, because of the problem of quantification of benefits, imparting skills through training and development is yet not recognized as an important initiative at organizational level for problem of quantification of benefits. Skill is defined as a coordinated series of actions that serves to attain some goal or accomplish a particular task. Operationally, skills are defined widely as overt responses and controlled stimulation. Overt responses may be verbal, motor or perceptual. Verbal response typically stresses on speaking (which requires memorization of words); motor response stresses on movements of limbs and body, whereas, perceptual responses stress on understanding of sensory response. Controlled stimulation, on the other hand, are energy inputs to the workers, which we express in units of frequency, length, time and weight. Technological change and skill requirements have been made a subject of investigation in enormous studies across the world. There is a general consensus that a technological change alters the job but the observations differ in its nature and form. The Neo-c1assical Economic Theory advocated technological changes that require broader variety of skills and higher than average skills from the workers. New forms of skill and responsibility along with technological changes have been studied in Continuous Process Industry and Chemical Manufacturing Units, Petroleum Refining, Metal Working Industries, Banking Operations and in many other industries. Another school of thought advocates that technology is instrumental in fractionating and de-skilling of jobs. Redesigning of jobs subsequent to technological change separates the planning and the concept of job in its totality from the execution aspect of work. De-skilling and skill downgrading also occur due to differential growth of higher-versus low-skill occupations and industries. The focal point of this hypothesis is that the technology induces differential point of growth for different sectors of the economy and produces skill polarization by eventual occupational shift to skilled jobs in some industries and unskilled jobs in many others. These phenomena are especially evident in India. From the 1981 Census Reports onwards, we find a major occupational shift of workers from primary sector to secondary sector and from secondary sector to tertiary sector. Simultaneous structural change in occupational pattern is also evident, as the number of blue-collar workers has been drastically reduced while the number of white-collar workers has significantly increased.

• Option : D
• Explanation : TYPES OF OPTIONS
There are two basic types of stock options which can be used separately or combined to derive two additional types of options. Fundamentally, the holder of an option merely possesses the right to buy or sell a specific asset. The option contract specifies between the period of time allowed to exercise this right and the price. The main types of stock options are listed below:
1. Put Option
A put is an option to sell. A put gives its holder the privilege of selling or putting — to a second party a fixed amount of some stock at a stated price on or before a predetermined date.
2. Call Option
Analogously, a call is an option to purchase, its holders has the privilege of purchasingor- calling from a second party a fixed amount of some stock at a stated price on or before a predetermined day.