Explanation : Role of Department of Commerce in the Ministry of Commerce in Promoting Exports The Department of Commerce in the Ministry of Commerce is the apex body in the six tier arrangement of the institutional infrastructure created for the promotion of exports in India. This is the primary Government agency and the brain of entire export promotion system in the India and is responsible for evolving and directing India’s foreign trade policy and programmes including developing trade relations with other countries. It also supervises the state trading in India and is also responsible for devising and implementing various trade promotional measures and the development and regulation of certain export-oriented industries. It formulates and regulates country’s foreign trade policy and is responsible for external trade including commercial relations with other countries, state trading, various trade promotional measures, and development and regulation of certain export-oriented industries and commodities such as tea and tobacco. The department functions through the following six divisions. 1. The Economic Division: This division is headed by the economic adviser to the Government of India. The division is responsible for the development of export planning and export strategies and also for the periodic review and appraisal of foreign trade policy, it co-ordinates the functions of and maintains contacts with the other division as well as with other organizations set up under the Department of Commerce to assist the export drive. It also monitors work relating to technical assistance, management services for exports and overseas investments by Indian entrepreneurs. 2. The Trade Policy Division: This division is mainly concerned with the development in the international field like UNCTAD, GATT and ESCAP. It has regular contact with regional groupings like EEC, EFTA, LAFTA etc. and Commonwealth to maintain trade relations. It is also responsible for the tariff and non-tariff barriers imposed by the importing countries on India’s exports. 3. The Foreign Trade Territorial Division: This division is entrusted with the relating to the development of trade with different regions and countries of the world. It looks after matters relating to state trading, trade fairs and exhibitions, organisation of trade; commercial publicity abroad etc. Besides, it also maintains a liaison with India, commercial missions and representatives abroad and attends to the connective administrative work as also the protocol functions. 4. The Export Products Division: The division is concerned with the problems of production, generation of surplus and market development of different products except with the products under the jurisdiction of the export industries division which are exported by India. Though these products administratively continue to be under the ministries concerned, the division is simply responsible for ensuring that exportable surplus is generated on continuous basis and export commitments are met to their full extent besides meeting the home consumption. It also keeps continuous watch over the functioning of export promotion councils, commodity boards and other export organizations dealing with the commodities under its jurisdiction. 5. The Export Industries Division: This division is responsible for the problems connected with the production development and regulation of some select commodities, including tobacco, rubber, and cardamom for export purposes. It also looks after the export promotion activities of certain specified products, including textiles, woollens, readymade garments, coir, silk and handicrafts. 6. The Export Services Division: This divisions deals with problems of export assistance, facilities and grants to Indian industries and exporters to produce more to general export surplus. The functions of this division include replenishment licenses, cash assistance, marketing development assistance, export credit, export houses, guidance to Indian entrepreneurs to set up joint ventures abroad, capacity creation in export oriented units etc.
Explanation : Functions of WTO The Agreement establishing WTO provides that it should perform the following four functions: ∎ First, it shall facilitate the implementation, administration and operation of the Uruguay Round legal instruments and of any new agreements that may be negotiated in the future. ∎ Second, it shall provide a forum for further negotiations among member countries on matters covered by the agreements as well as on new issues falling within its mandate. ∎ Third, it shall be responsible for the settlement of differences and disputes among its member countries. ∎ Fourth, it shall be responsible for carrying out periodic reviews of the trade policies of its member countries.