Explanation : A marketing channel can be defined as follows: A marketing channel is a set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption. The definition bears some explication. It first points out that a marketing channel is a set of interdependent organizations. That is, a marketing channel is not just one firm doing its best in the market—whether that firm is a manufacturer, wholesaler, or retailer. Rather, many entities are typically involved in the business of channel marketing. Each channel member depends on the others to do their jobs.
Explanation : Types of Investments Foreign investment into India may take place through foreign direct investment, foreign portfolio investment, foreign venture capital investment, and other investments. ∎ Foreign direct investment: Foreign direct investment may be made in a new company or an existing company. It is now freely permitted up to 100 per cent in almost all sectors. Such investment can be made in shares, convertible debentures, and preference shares of Indian companies in accordance with the FDI Policy. ∎ Foreign portfolio investment: Under the portfolio investment scheme, foreign institutional investors (FIIs) can invest in shares and convertible debentures issued by Indian companies. FIIs are allowed to invest in securities traded on both primary and secondary capital markets as well as through private placement or arrangement. These securities include shares, debentures, warrants, units of mutual funds, government securities, and derivative instruments. FIIs are, however, not permitted to invest in equity issued by an asset reconstruction company. ∎ Foreign venture capital investment: A foreign venture capital investor (FVCI) is permitted to invest in an Indian venture capital undertaking, an Indian venture capital fund, or in a scheme floated by a venture capital fund. FVCIs are permitted to purchase equity, equity linked instruments, debt, debt instruments, and debentures of a venture capital undertaking or a venture capital fund through initial public offer or private placement in units of schemes or funds set up by a ventures capital funds. ∎ Other investments: FIIs can also buy dated government securities or treasury bills, listed nonconvertible debentures, bonds issued by Indian companies, and units of domestic mutual funds, either directly from the issuer of such securities or through a registered stockbroker on a recognized stock exchange in India.
Explanation : Training: Benefits to the Individual Which in Turn Ultimately Should Benefit the Organisation ∎ Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving. ∎ Through training and development, motivational variables of recognistion, achievement, growth, responsibility and advancement are internalised and operationalised. ∎ Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence. ∎ Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflict. ∎ Provides information for improving leadership, knowledge, communication skills and attitudes. ∎ Increases job satisfaction and recognition. ∎ Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills. ∎ Satisfies personal needs of the trainer (and trainee). ∎ Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future. ∎ Develops a sense of growth in learning. ∎ Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills; also writing skills when exercises are required. ∎ Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks.
Explanation : International Liquidity and International Reserves International liquidity refers to those financial resources and facilities that are available to a country for financing the deficit in its balance of payments. The various components of international liquidity are gold and foreign currencies held by the monetary authority of a country, borrowing facilities available from the IMF, special drawing rights (SDRs), the borrowing capacity of the country in the international market, and so on. Thus, the term “international liquidity” refers to the country’s international reserves as well as its capacity to borrow in the international market. Where gold is held as a reserve asset, its market value is listed, but gold cannot be directly used to settle payments between central banks. In other words, gold is no longer used as a means to settle international payments. Official reserve holdings may include some foreign currency that is universally acceptable and convertible. Throughout the latter part of the nineteenth century, the British pound served as a universally acceptable currency alongside gold, into which it was convertible. Subsequently, the U.S. dollar has rivalled the GBP as a world currency. Any currency which is to serve satisfactorily as a reserve currency for other countries should satisfy certain conditions. It must be the currency of a great trading nation. The currency should be easily acquired via normal trade. It must have a stable value, or at least, in a world where currencies are losing value, it must lose value no faster than other currencies. It must be a currency that is supported in its home country by a strong banking system. Such a currency must also be free from recurrent scarcity. Any currency which is a candidate for the international reserve must be close to meeting these criteria, and the extent to which it conforms to them is likely to determine its success. The main purposes of holding foreign exchange reserves are: (i) to maintain public confidence in the capacity of the country to honour its international obligations; and (ii) to increase the capacity of the monetary authority to intervene in the foreign exchange market. In other words, foreign exchange reserves are mainly held for precautionary and transaction motives, and also for achieving a balance between demand and supply of foreign currencies.