- Option : D
- Explanation :

Main memory access time, T_{m}= 100 ns

TLB lookup, T_{TLB}= 20ns

Page transfer time, T_{PT}= 5000 ns

TLB hit ratio, x = 0.95 (95%)

page fault rate, p = 0.10 (10%)

We know,

EMAT for multilevel paging,

EMAT = x (T_{c}+ T_{m}) + (1 – x) (T_{c}+ (n + 1) T_{m})

EMAT, when there is a page fault, S → is service time

EMAT = (1 – P) T_{m}+ Ps

Here, we are using TLB, and page fault occurs whenever there is a miss in TLB, So the required EMAT is ,

EMAT = x(T_{tlb}+ T_{m}) + (1 – x) [(1 – P) (T_{tlb}+ T_{m}+ T_{m}) + p(% dirty (T_{tlb}+ T_{m}+ 2T_{PT}) + % clean (T_{tlb}+ T_{m}+ T_{PT})

∴ EMAT = 0.95 (20 + 100) + 0.05 (0.9 (20 + 100 + 100) + 0.1 (0.2 (20 + 100 + 2(5000)) + 0.8 (20 + 100 + 5000))

= 154.5 ns

You must be logged in to post a comment.

- Option : A
- Explanation :

If we consider a small graph with 5 vertices, then the minimum spanning tree will have a weight 4.

So, for n-vertices, MST weight would be (n – 1)

As n = 100 (no. of vertices), So, minimum spanning tree weight = (100 – 1) = 99

You must be logged in to post a comment.

You must be logged in to post a comment.

- Option : A
- Explanation :

Min-heap contains 1023 elements.

Min-heap means, parent should be minimum or equal to it’s children so, max children could be either left or right one.

Following this logic, maximum can be definitely at leaf nodes.

No. of elements in leaf = n/2 = 1023/2 = 512

To find maximum among 512 elements, no. of comparisons needed is 511.

You must be logged in to post a comment.

You must be logged in to post a comment.

- Option : B
- Explanation :

Non-pipeline

Clock frequency = 2.5 GHz.

Cycle time = 1/2.5 GHz = 0.4ns

Given, CPI = 5

So, ET_{non-pipe}= CPI × Cycle time

= 5 × 0.4 ns = 2 ns

Pipeline:

Clock frequency = 24 GHz

Cycle time = 1/2 GHz = 0.5ns

∴ Number of stalls/instruction = 0.3 × 0.05 × 50 + 0.1 * 0.5 × 2

= 0.85

Avg. instruction ETpipe = (1 + No. of stall instruction) * cycle time

= (1 + 0.85) × 0.5 ns = 0.925 ns

You must be logged in to post a comment.

You must be logged in to post a comment.

You must be logged in to post a comment.